A collection of links on the Netherlands, its history and culture, what to discover, and how. With a special focus on Amsterdam and on the relatively rural region just outside and southeast of the city. Links to sites that are (partly) in English, unless mentioned otherwise.
General history and culture of the Netherlands
www.geheugenvannederland.nl : Memory of the Netherlands. Thematic digital collections with an enormous amount of material, images and films.
Battle in the Teutoburg Forest : the defeat of the Roman commander Varus against Germanic tribes in 9 AD. Three legions were annihilated and Germania (and the Netherlands north of the Rhine) remained independent from Roman rule. See also www.kalkriese-varusschlacht.de - the probable location of the battle.
www.keesn.nl : about historical re-enactment, but also background information on The Netherlands during the Viking age and the 13th century.
www.archeon.nl : In Archeon there are 43 buildings rebuild from archaeological findings in and around the Netherlands. The buildings are inhabited by so called Archeo-translators. "These people dress like our ancestors and a small chat or one of our numerous activities with them will bring history closer than you ever imagined." Located in Alphen aan den Rijn (30 km South of Amsterdam).
whc.unesco.org : locations in the Netherlands on UNESCO World Heritage list.
www.theundutchables.com : The Undutchables, an observation of the Netherlands: it's culture and its inhabitants. Written by Colin White and Laurie Boucke.
Fortifications, defence lines and military
Amsterdam, as a major trading city and capital, was protected by a city wall since the 15th century. Later by several lines of defence consisting of earthworks.
The last line, build between about 1885 and 1914, is mostly intact: the Defence Line of Amsterdam. Its defensive works are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie was a military line of defence that extended from the former Zuiderzee near Muiden to the Biesbosch (in the south of Holland). The line was established as a protective ring approximately 85 km long and 3-5 km wide.
Weesp and Muiden are the only towns in Holland that are part of both defence lines.
www.radarstation.nl : in the Second World War, the Germans build a very secret radar station between Weesp and Muiden. One of the first radars in the world. Remains can still be seen in the fields ; backgrounds, working and outline explained on this site.